5. Foraging decision in spider monkeys: quality and recency
Reynoso-Cruz J. Eduardo-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hernandez-Salazar Laura Teresa-Instituto de Neuroetología, Vila Javier-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Nieto Javier- Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Temporal weighting rule (TWR) is a model that proposes that recency of a patch visit and the quality of the patch are important to decide where to forage in the future, being recency, the most important variable followed by the quality. We tested if spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use recency and quality as the model predicts. Sixteen adults (8 males and 8 females) solve the task in apparatus with three containers that emulates patches. In the first experiment we manipulate the quality and the time and the data show that spider monkeys chose patches based on quality more than recency. In the second experiment we manipulate the quality by the amount of trials and again the data shows that the monkeys chose a patch based on quality. TWR propose that the organisms average the quality of the patches, but our third experiment shows that the individuals take account the total quality not the average quality. Based on the three experiments we conclude that spider monkeys take account of quality more than recency and during this process they compute the total quality to take a foraging decision. The differences in our data in relation with previous experiments will be based on the differences of feeding habits and activity patterns. Spider monkeys consume a higher percentage of fruit to increase the energy consumption since spider monkeys spend a higher percentage of their days in activities very energetically demanding.
6. Cognition in horses (Equus Caballus): A bibliometric analysis
Francisca Droguett, Pilar Herrera-Aroca, Vanetza Quezada-Scholz, Gonzalo Miguez, & Mario A. Laborda Department of Psychology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile (affiliation of all).
Scientific research on cognition in horses (Equus Caballus) is a recent area of study with little development and systematicity. However, the available reports are already drawing a picture concerning the cognitive abilities of this animal. Thus, the goal of the present research was to describe and analyse the scientific productivity related to the study of cognition in domestic horses (Equus Caballus), focusing on four basic cognitive processes: memory, attention, learning, and perception. A preliminary search for articles was performed in the Web of Science and included keywords related to cognition and horses, in journals cataloged within Psychology or Behavioral Sciences. Then, a manual selection of articles related to the cognitive processes of interest was performed. Articles obtained were analyzed according to the following indices: Publications per year, Affiliations, Funding agencies, Collaborating countries, Relevant authors in the area, among other indicators. A total of 149 articles were preliminarily analyzed: this line of research is shown to be growing with respect to previous years (e.g., in the last 10 years, the productivity in this area of research has increased 3.6 times); There are 4 countries that have 59% of the scientific production in the area: the United States (26%), England (19%), and France (14%); French institutions concentrate the bulk of affiliations and the most authors with the largest impact in the area. In this line of research, the predominance of women as promoters of the area stands out, presenting a considerable majority of authorship.