Lightning talk - Room E (12:15 P.M.)

23. Human Approach Test: Recent Developments

Francisca Bertin, Mario A. Laborda, Vanetza E. Quezada-Scholz & Gonzalo Miguez -Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Chile

Introduction: Animal’s response to humans is associated with its species, age, experience with humans, motivational state, and genetics. In this context, the Human Approach Test (HAT) is used to assess human-animal relationships and monitor animal welfare. By registering the animal’s reaction to a human, HAT evaluates the latency, distance, and behavior of the animal towards a human. Due to the human-animal relationship nature and the interaction context, variations in HAT have been developed for its use in domestic, zoo, and laboratory animals. Objective: To Describe recent developments about HAT in animals Method: Literature respective recent developments on HAT were acquired using academic search engines. Result: In pets, HAT is relevant in behavioral testing, allowing behavioral problems' identification. Due to the tight animal-human relationship, the HAT is frequently implemented using familiar or unfamiliar humans in different behavioral contexts. This test is also used to assess emotional reactivity towards humans, correlated to the animal’s physiological and vocal response, as well to the productive index of farm animals. In zoo animals, HAT has been implemented using zookeepers, visitors, conspecifics, and novel objects, however, due to safety hazards for humans and animals, direct HAT is difficult to assess. In laboratory animals, HAT has been used to assess the animal’s appetitive o fearful reaction to human contact. Discussion: The HAT is a useful tool for determining the impact of the human-animal relationship and animal welfare in a domestic, productive, and scientific context. This conveys to HAT a social, economic, and scientific relevance.

24. Spanish adaptation of Ideal Partner and Relationship Scale (IPRS): A classical test for human mate selection research

Leonardo Moreno Naranjo - Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Germán Antonio Gutiérrez Domínguez - Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Mate preference studies have been growing around the world in recent years, however, the psychological tests used in this area have not been adequately adapted to Spanish-speaking contexts. This project aims to adapt to Spanish one of the most frequently used tests in the field of human sexual selection: Ideal Partner and Relationship Scale (IPRS), following a strict local validation protocol. The adaptation included the following procedures: (1) Translation by peers, (2) Evaluation by experts, (3) Initial application / Validation (149 participants), (4) Analysis of psychometric properties, and (5) Confirmatory analysis from an independent sample (247 participants). Through the information collected, we proceeded to create the final version of the test in Spanish. The analysis of the psychometric properties of the IPRS test indicate that the instrument retains stability and consistency similar to the original English version. The factorial structure was conserved in this new version, which includes five preference dimensions (physical attractiveness, warmth and trust, status and resources, intelligence, and social skills). Similarly, reliability indicators demonstrate a good internal stability. Finally, the preference patterns of the participants are similar to what has been reported in another research around the world. The good properties regarding the collected evidence lead to the conclusion that the adaptation of the Spanish IPRS test was successful, which may be due to following a strict validation protocol. However, it is necessary to obtain more estimates with independent samples in the future, as well as reliability/validity indicators related to the predictive capacity of the test.

25. Preliminary evidence of discrimination of familiar and unfamiliar human faces by pet turtles: A mask experiment

Tsukasa Heya-Affiliated Junior High School of Kanazawa University, Mikita Nishikawa-Japan Foundation for AIDS Prevention, Tohru Taniuchi-Kanazawa University

The present study examined discrimination of faces of a familiar human feeder and another person by pet turtles. 12 pet turtles were kept in a small pond in a garden of a private house and fed daily by a 12- year old male feeder. To control possible effects of factors other than the faces, such as weight and stature, and to make it possible for the feeder to conduct the experiment by himself, we used “masks” made of photographs of faces of the feeder and another person. There were four face conditions: experimenter (feeder) without a mask, with a mask of feeder’s own face, with a mask of another person (an adult male), and with a simple white mask. The experimenter without the mask or with one of the masks sat on a chair set by the pond and looked into the pond for three minutes. Nine evaluators rated their impressions of the movie clips in terms of overall approach-avoidance tendencies of the 12 turtles. For the first minute of the three minutes trials, the turtles approached the experimenter’s natural face, the mask of the experimenter, and the mask of another person more than the white mask. The turtles continued to approach the experimenter’s natural face and the mask of the experimenter throughout the three-minute trials. However, during the next two minutes, the turtles quickly stopped approaching the mask of another person, and also the white mask. These results provide first preliminary evidence of recognition of human faces by turtles.

26. Inductor and reinforcer: Ontological differences which make them incommensurable

Josué A. Camacho-Candia, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, México y Francisco J. Aguilar-Guevara, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, México

Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB), as a scientific area, evolves towards paradigms which make it possible to explain previously studied phenomena in a broader way, as to account for new problems that were hidden by the logic of the former paradigm (Kuhn, 1962, 1971). This transition can lie in methodologies and techniques already known and consolidated, but it is necessary to be aware of avoiding three kinds of ontological problems: 1) tautological propositions, 2) incommensurable theoretical overlaps, 3) logical mistakes. This work points out that in some AEC’s products in which, Induction, that is a concept from Baum’s molar model (e.g., 2002, 2011, 2012, 2020), is used as one that may co-exist with Reinforcement, stablished in the molecular Operant Conditioning Theory from Skinner (1938), some of the philosophical mistakes previously mentioned are carried out. Based on Kuhn, Ryle and Popper, philosophical analyses show, for example, that assigning the same function to the inductor and the reinforcer is a tautology case; that considering Induction as a “new” element in Operant Conditioning paradigm is an incommensurable theoretical overlap; or using inductor and reinforcer as interchangeable concepts, constitutes a logical mistake. It is concluded that paradigmatical changes are necessary in AEC since molecular theoretical developments fail to explain in an outstanding way a number of AEC’s phenomena. Nevertheless, paradigmatical changes must advance hand in hand with theoretical and conceptual reflection and specification, for normal science being more coherent in its concepts, techniques, and methodologies through the search of anomalous experiences or falsifiability.

27. Chimpanzee personality is linked to their performance in cognitive tasks

Maria Padrell -  Facultat d'Educació i Psicologia, Universitat de Girona; Unitat de Recerca i Etologia, Fundació Mona, Girona, Spain; David Riba -  Unitat de Recerca i Etologia, Fundació Mona;  Facultat de Lletres, Universitat de Girona, Girona, SpainYulán Úbeda - Facultat d'Educació i Psicologia, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain; Federica Amici-  Research Group “Primate Behavioural Ecology”, Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, and Miquel Llorente - Facultat d'Educació i Psicologia, Universitat de Girona;  Unitat de Recerca i Etologia, Fundació Mona;  IPRIM, Institut de Recerca i Estudis en Primatologia, Girona, Spain

Introduction: Personality has been linked to individual differences in performance in problem-solving tasks. However, this relationship is still poorly understood and has rarely been considered in animal cognition research. Objectives: In this study we investigated the association between personality and task performance in 13 sanctuary chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Fundació Mona (Spain). Method: Personality was assessed with a 12-item questionnaire based on Eysenck's Psychoticism-Extraversion-Neuroticism model completed by human raters. Experimental tasks consisted in several puzzle boxes that needed to be appropriately manipulated to obtain a food reward. Performance measures included participation, success, latency and losing contact with the task. We analyzed data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, running a model for each performance measure and including personality traits in interaction with sex as predictors. Results and discussion: We found that lower Extraversion and lower Dominance predicted higher probability of success, but more evidently in females. Additionally, higher Neuropsychoticism was linked to higher probability of success in females. The probability of losing contact with the task was higher in chimpanzees with lower Extraversion and higher Dominance. Furthermore, those rated higher on Neuropsychoticism were also more likely to stop interacting with the task, but again this was more evident in females. Participation and latency were not linked to any personality trait. Our findings confirm that the PEN may be a suitable model to describe chimpanzee personality, and stress the importance of considering personality when interpreting the results of cognitive research in non-human primates.